Click a title for a description and a link to the full national report.
The CDC released this data brief on Birth in the United States, 2016. Highlights include:
- The general fertility rate in the U.S. decreased by 1% from 2015.
- The birth rate increased for mothers aged 30-44 and decreased for mothers aged <30.
- The cesarean delivery rate declined from 2015 to 31.9% of all births.
- The preterm birth rate increased slightly from 2015 to 9.85%. This is the second year in a row the preterm birth rate rose.
The CDC released this report on the Infant Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas in the United States for 2014. Highlights include:
- As urbanization level increased in 2014, the infant mortality rate decreased from 6.55 deaths per 1,000 births in rural counties to 6.20 in small and medium urban counties and 5.44 in large urban counties.
- For the neonatal mortality rates, this rate was higher in rural counties than in large urban counties. Additionally, as urbanization levels increased, the postneonatal mortality rates decreased.
- Mortality rates were the lowest in large urban counties for infants born to mothers who were non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black.
- As urbanization levels increased mortality rates decreased for infants of mothers aged 20-29, 30-39, and 40 and over.
This report releases preliminary birth data for 2016. Highlights include:
- The number of births in the United States slightly decreased by 1% from 2015.
- The teenage birth rate decreased 9% in 2016.
- The cesarean delivery rate declined to 31.9%. This is the fourth year in a row the cesarean birth rate decreased.
- The low-risk cesarean delivery rate decreased again to 25.7%.
- The preterm birth rate increased again to 9.84%. This is the second year in a row the preterm birth rate increased.
- The low birthweight rate increased again to 8.16%. This is the second year in a row the low birthweight rate increased.
The CDC released this report on the Trends in Infant Mortality in the United States for 2005 to 2014. Highlights include:
- In the United States, the infant mortality rates reached a new low for Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Asian or Pacific Islander Populations in 2014.
- All infant mortality rates decreased from 2005 to 2014 in all race and Hispanic-origin subgroups except among American Indian or Alaska Native persons. Asian or Pacific Islander and non-Hispanic black women experienced the largest decline in infant mortality at 21% and 20%, respectively.
- In all Hispanic subgroups, declined for all Hispanic subject groups from 2005 to 2007 and 2012 to 2014. Cuban and Puerto Rican women had the largest decline in infant mortality at 19% and 17%, respectively.
- Sudden infant death syndrome, one of the top five leading causes of infant death, experienced 29% decline in the infant mortality rate from 2005 to 2014.
The CDC released this report on the Trends and Variations in Reproduction and Intrinsic Rates in the United States for 1990 to 2014. Highlights include:
- A decline in the rates of reproduction, the intrinsic rate of natural increase, and the intrinsic birth rate were observed when comparing 2014 to 1990.
- There was a steady decline in all rates from 1990 to 1997 and, then, there was an increase from 1997 to 2007. But, from 2007 to 2013, there was a decrease in all rates and the rates increased in 2013.
- When examining the race and Hispanic subgroups, a decline was observed for the total fertility and gross reproduction rates in all groups when comparing 2014 to 1990.
- From 2006 to 2014, a decline was observed with the net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and intrinsic brith rate for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic.
This report releases final birth data for 2015. Highlights include:
- The total number of births in the United States decreased by less than 1% in 2015
- In 2015, the teenage birth rate (females aged 15-19) declined by 8%.
- The birth rate was a record low for women in their 20s. The birth rate increased for women in their 30s and remained unchanged for women in their 40s.
- In 2015, the cesarean delivery rate decreased to 32.0% of all United States births. There was a decrease in cesarean delivery for all age groups and for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women.
- The preterm birth rate in the United States increased to 9.63% in 2015.
- The low birthweight rate increased to 8.07%.
The CDC released this report on the Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States for 2007-2015. Highlights include:
- Teen birth rate declined in both large urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015. The largest decline was seen in the urban counties, while the smallest declines were seen the rural counties.
- The teen birth rate was lowest in the large urban counties and highest in the rural counties from 2007-2015.
- Between 2007 and 2015, the largest declines in teen birth rates for urban counties were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado. There were 17 states that experienced a decline of 50% or more.
- Between 2007 and 2015, the largest declines in teen birth rates for rural counties were in Colorado and Connecticut.
- The teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females in 2015.
The CDC released the report for the first time on the Cause of Fetal Death from the 2014 Fetal Death Report. It includes the causes of fetal death by selected characteristics including maternal age, Hispanic origin and race, fetal sex, period of gestation, and birthweight. Highlights include:
- In 2014, the fetal mortality rate for the 37 areas examined in the report was 611.7 fetal deaths per 100,000 live births and fetal deaths. The fetal mortality rate from this report is 2% greater than the U.S. fetal mortality rate, which was 597.5 fetal deaths per 100,000 live births and fetal deaths.
- There were five selected causes, which accounted for about 90% of all the fetal deaths. These five selected causes of fetal death were:
- Congenital Malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities
- Maternal Complications
- Maternal Conditions Unrelated to Pregnancy
- Placenta, Cord, and Membrane Complications
- Unspecified Cause
- Birthweight and gestational age showed the most difference in the variables for the five selected causes of fetal death.
- Even with the limited variations seen in the analysis with the selected causes of fetal death among maternal and fetal characteristics, the variations observed are consistent with previous relationships documented in the research literature.
The CDC released this report on the Birth Expectations of U.S. Women Aged 15-44. Highlights include:
- It is estimated that 50% of U.S. Women aged 15-44 in 2013-2015 are expected to have a child in the future.
- In 2013-2015, it was estimated women to have on average 2.2 children in their lifetime, which has decreased since 2002.
- When comparing women who were never married, not cohabiting to those women who are currently married or cohabiting, a smaller percentage of those women expect to have a child within 2 years from the time of the interview. The percentages as follows: 5% currently never married, not cohabiting; 19% currently married; 16% currently cohabiting.
- Of mothers who have 2 or more children, 82% did not expect to have more children in the future.
The CDC released this report on the Birth Rates for Teenagers in the United States in 2015. Highlights include:
- The United States Teen Birth Rate declined 8% in 2015 from 2014 to 22.3 birth per 1,000 females aged 15-19. This is a historic low for the U.S. Teen Birth Rates
- A record low was seen with the Birth Rates for teenagers aged 15-17 and 18-19 in 2015 to 9.9 and 40.7, respectively.
- Teen Birth Rates declined for Asian or Pacific Islander (6.9), Non-Hispanic White (16.0), American Indian or Alaska Native (25.7), Non-Hispanic Black (31.8), and Hispanic (34.9) female teenagers aged 15-19. In 2015, nearly all race and Hispanic-origin groups of females aged 15-19, 15-17, and 18-19 birth rates fell to record lows.
The CDC released this data brief on Birth in the United States, 2015. Highlights include:
- In the United States, the number of births decreased by less than 1%.
- The general fertility rate in the U.S. decreased by 1% from 2014.
- The birth rate increased for mothers aged 30-44 and decreased for mothers aged <30.
- The cesarean delivery rate declined from 2014 to 32% of all births.
- The preterm birth rate increased slightly from 2014 to 9.63%.
The CDC released this report on the pre-pregnancy body mass index by maternal characteristics and states from the 2014 Birth Certificate data. Highlights include:
- Of the mothers who gave birth in 2014, 3.8% were underweight and 45.9% were of normal BMI before becoming pregnant. In 2014, 50% of women delivering in 2014 were either overweight (2.5.6%) or obese (24.8%) before becoming pregnant.
- Mothers who were underweight before pregnancy decreased with age; however, mothers who were overweight before pregnancy increased with age.
- The percentage of first time mothers who were underweight before pregnancy was the highest. Furthermore, as parity increased, women were less likely to be underweight.
- The pre-pregnancy underweight and obesity percentages was higher than the national rate for fifteen states, which include Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia.
This report releases preliminary birth data for 2015. Highlights include:
- The number of births in the United States slightly decreased (less than 1%).
- The teenage birth rate decreased 8% in 2015.
- The cesarean delivery rate declined to 32.0%. This is the third year in a row the cesarean birth rate decreased.
- The preterm birth rate slightly increased to 9.62%.
- The low birthweight rate increased to 8.07%.
The CDC released this report on the final death data from 2014. Highlights include:
- The infant mortality rate was 5.82 per 1000 live births, which is a record low. In 2014, the infant mortality rate decreased 2.3%.
- The neonatal mortality rate was 3.94 per 1000 live births.
- The postneonatal mortality rate was 1.88 per 1000 live births.
- On page 1 and 2, you will find the top ten causes of infant death for 2014.
The CDC released this report on the Declines in Triplet and Higher-order Multiple Births in the United States from 1998-2014. Highlights include:
- There was a 41% decline in triplet and higher-order birth rate from 1998 to 2014. The triplet and higher-order birth rate was about 1 in every 515 births in 1998 to about 1 in every 880 births in 2014.
- For women aged 25 and over, triplet and higher-order birth rates decreased by about 50% or more, but rates remained unchanged for women under the age of 25.
- Non-Hispanic white women had the largest decline in triplet and higher-order birth rates by race and Hispanic origin. Non-Hispanic white women decreased by 46% compared to Hispanic women with a 15% decline and non-Hispanic black women remained unchanged.
The CDC released this report on the short interpregnancy intervals in 2014. Highlights include:
- In 2014, 29% mothers who had a second or higher-order birth had a short inter pregnancy interval of less than 18 months.
- It was more common for mothers who were 35 and over to have short intervals between pregnancies compared to mothers who were under 20 years of age at their previous birth.
- It was most common for short intervals of less than 6 months and 6-11 months for non-Hispanic black mothers (7.1% and 11.7%, respectively) compared to non-Hispanic white mothers (4.1% and 11.2%) and Hispanic mothers (5.0% and 9.3%).
- There was correlation between short interpregnancy intervals of less than 6 months to education level, which was intervals of less than 6 months decreased, education level increased. For instance, 4.3% mothers no high school diploma to 1.8% mothers with a doctorate or professional degree show this correlation between an interval of less than 6 months to education level.
This report by the CDC explores the mean age of mothers being on the rise. Highlights include:
- From 2000 to 2014, the mean age of mothers has increased for all birth orders. The first birth had the largest increase, which was 24.9 years of age in 2000 to 26.3 years of age in 2014.
- The oldest average age at first birth was seen in Asian or Pacific Islanders mothers with a mean age of 29.5 years. The youngest average age at firth birth was seen in American Indian or Alaska Native mothers had the youngest age of 23.1 years.
- All states and the District of Columbia had an increase in the mean age of mothers at first birth from 2000 to 2014. District of Columbia (3.4 years) and Oregon (2.1) had the largest increase in mean age of mothers at first birth.
This report by the CDC explores maternal morbidity for vaginal and cesarean deliveries. Highlights include:
- The rates of maternal morbidity were higher for cesarean than vaginal deliveries for all maternal age groups and women of all races and ethnicities.
- Women who had vaginal deliveries with no previous cesarean delivery have lower rates for all maternal morbidities when compared to women who had cesarean deliveries.
- Women who labored and had vaginal deliveries with previous cesarean delivery generally had lower rates for a majority of the morbidities. However, when a women has failed trials of labor is associated with higher morbidities compared to scheduled repeat cesarean deliveries.
The CDC released this report on the final birth data from 2014. Highlights include:
- The total births and general fertility rate increased 1% from 2013.
- The teenage birth rate decreased 9% from 2013.
- The mean age of mother at first birth increased to 26.3.
- The cesarean delivery rate decreased to 32.2% of all births in the United States.
- The preterm birth rate declined 9.57%.
- The low birthweight rate remained unchanged in 2014.
This report releases preliminary birth data for 2014. Highlights include:
- The total births and the fertility rate increased about 1%.
- The birth rate for teenagers decreased about 9%.
- The cesarean delivery rate decreased 3%.
- The preterm birth rate went down to 9.57%.
- The low birthweight rate remained unchanged in 2014.
Choices in Childbirth surveyed 111 doulas in New York City as well as held four focus groups. The cumulative findings of this research include:
- Cost is the most significant barrier to obtaining doula services.
- The doula workforce is small and less diverse than the population of New York City, with women of color under-represented as well as doula services in languages other than English, Spanish, or French.
- Access to doula care in underserved communities is extremely limited.
- Fostering collaborative relationships between doulas, maternity care providers, and nurses would improve the impact of doula care.
- Establishing positive hospital policies would improve the impact of doula care.
- Doulas need support for the work that they do, including models of doula service delivery that minimize stressors and difficulties.
This report by the CDC explores when are babies born from the birth certificate data for 2013. Highlights include:
- Morning and midday hours have the highest percentages of births.
- Births on Saturday and Sunday were more likely to happen in the late evening and early hours of the morning.
- Cesarean deliveries were the least likely to occur in the early morning and evening when compared to both induced and noninduced vaginal deliveries.
- The cesarean deliveries without a trial of labor were more likely to occur during the day compared to cesarean deliveries with a trial of labor.
The CDC released this report on the final death data from 2013. Highlights include:
- The infant mortality rate decreased 0.3% in 2013. The infant mortality rate was 5.96 per 1000 live births. This was a record low in the infant mortality rate. However, the infant mortality rate was not significantly significant.
- The neonatal mortality rate was 4.04 per 1000 live births.
- The postneonatal mortality rate was 1.93 per 1000 live births.
- On page 1 and 2, you will find the top ten causes of infant death are for 2013.
The CDC released this report on the Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. This 2007 period linked data set contains information from the death certificate, which is linked to the birth certificate for each infant under the age of one who died in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or Guam. Highlights include:
- In 2013, the infant mortality rate was 5.96 infant deaths per 1000 live births. This infant mortality rate was similar to the infant mortality rate in 2012, which was 5.98 per 1000 live births.
- The infant mortality rate for infants who were born at 37-38 weeks of gestation (early term) had infant mortality rates that were 63% higher than infants who were born at 39-40 weeks of gestation (full-term).
- The infant mortality rate has declined 13% since 2005, which was the most recent high in the infant mortality rate. The infant mortality rate in 2005 was 6.86 per 1000 infant deaths.
The CDC released this report on the final birth data from 2013. Highlights include:
- Both the total births and the general fertility rate declined 1%.
- The cesarean delivery rate declined very slightly from 32.8% to 32.7%.
- The preterm birth rate declined to 11.39%.
- The low birthweight rate remained unchanged at 8.02%.
- The twin birth right reached a new high at 33.7 per 1,000 total births for the nations. This is up 2% from 2012.
- The triplet and higher-order multiple birth rate declined 4%.
This report includes trends in first births to older women. Highlights include:
- The first birth rate for women aged 35–39 increased from 1970 to 2006, decreased from 2006 to 2010, and increased again in both 2011 and 2012.
- The first birth rate for women aged 40–44 was steady in the 1970s and started increasing in the 1980s. The rate more than doubled from 1990 to 2012.
- For women aged 35–39 and 40–44 all race and Hispanic origin groups had increasing first birth rates from 1990 to 2012.
- Since 2000, 46 states and DC had an increase in the first birth rate for women aged 35–39. For women aged 40–44, rates increased in 31 states and DC.
This report by the CDC explores declines in induction of labor by gestational age. Highlights include:
- After nearly 20 years of consecutive increases, induction of labor for singleton births reached a high of 23.8% in 2010, then declined in 2011 (23.7%) and 2012 (23.3%).
- Trends in induction rates vary by gestational age, with rates for most gestational age groups declining since 2010. Induction rates for births at 36, 37, and 38 weeks have declined since 2006, with the largest decrease at 38 weeks.
- From 2006 through 2012, induction rates at 38 weeks of gestation declined for all maternal age groups under 40 and for each of the largest race and Hispanic origin groups.
- Induction rates at 38 weeks declined for 36 states and the District of Columbia (DC) from 2006 through 2012, with declines ranging from 5% to 48%; rates for 31 states and DC declined at least 10%.
This report by the Childbirth Connection summarizes the best available research about the impact of the healthcare liability system on maternity care and policy strategies for improved functioning of the liability system in maternity care. A broad investigation of maternity care liability issues has not been carried out since the Institute of Medicine issued a report in 1989.
- The report finds that there are more claims for newborn than maternal injury, though childbearing women are more likely to sustain negligent injury, while receiving care in US hospitals. However, the rate of filing claims by or on behalf of those who experienced negligent injury, mother or newborn, is low, about 2%. Payment for damages goes to less than 1% of those with negligent injury, and most money awarded goes toward administrative and legal costs rather than plaintiffs.
- Furthermore, the report did not find evidence of the severe adverse impact this liability system is believed to have on premium affordability or evidence of extensive avoidance defensive practice or assurance defensive practice. The report goes on to propose solutions for deficiencies in the current liability system with the aim to alleviate professional stressors, improve care of women and newborns, and achieve better value for those who pay for maternity services. The report proposes evaluations of these strategies as well as abandoning efforts to advance policy strategies that lack empirical support and/or have potential for narrow impact.
From the report by the National Research Council & Institute of Medicine of the National Academies:
- "The United States spends much more money on health care than any other country. Yet Americans die sooner and experience more illness than residents in many other countries. While the length of life has improved in the United States, other countries have gained life years even faster, and our relative standing in the world has fallen over the past half century. What accounts for the paradoxical combination in the United States of relatively great wealth and high spending on health care with relatively poor health status and lower life expectancy?
- The report identifies a number of misconceptions about the causes of the nation’s relatively poor performance. The report describes multiple, plausible explanations for the U.S. health disadvantage, from deficiencies in the health system to high rates of unhealthy behaviors and from adverse social conditions to unhealthy environments. The panel painstakingly reviews the quality and limitations of evidence about all of the factors that may contribute to poor U.S. health outcomes. In this, and in earlier work the panel cites, many remediable shortcomings have been identified. Thus, the report advances an agenda for both research and action."
Key findings from this report from the CDC include:
- The pregnancy rate for U.S. women in 2009 was 102.1 per 1,000 women aged 15–44, the lowest level in 12 years; only the 1997 rate of 101.6 has been lower in the last 30 years.
- Rates for women under age 30 fell during 1990–2009, while rates for women aged 30 and over increased.
- Rates for teenagers reached historic lows in 2009, including rates for the three major race and Hispanic origin groups.
- Pregnancy rates have declined about 10% each for married and unmarried women since 1990.
- The birth rate for married women was 72% higher than the rate for unmarried women; the abortion rate for unmarried women was almost five times higher than the rate for married women.
This report releases preliminary birth data for 2013. Highlights include:
- Total births stayed about the same (increased by 0.1%) and the fertility rate was at a record low.
- The cesarean rate went down very slightly nationally (32.8 to 32.7).
- The cesarean rates dropped in 27 states; stayed the same in 9 more; and increased slightly in 15, with Alaska with the biggest change at 0.7%). Four states dropped by greater than 1.0 percentage points (Delaware 1.6; Montana 1.5; LA 1.3; and Neb 1.2).
- The teen birth rate hit a record low.
- The nonmarital birth rate went down slightly.
- Low birthweight rate stayed the same (8%).
This report by the CDC explores trends in the national and state patterns of teen births in the United States from the period of 1940-2013. Highlights include:
- Teen births have generally declined, after peaking in 1957.
- The rate fell 57% from 1991 and 2013.
- The largest declines from 1991-2012 were for non-Hispanic Black teenagers.
- In 2007-2012, the declines have been the steepest for Hispanic teenagers.
- The drop in teen birth rate translates to an estimated 4 million fewer births from 1990-2012.
- The rates reflect a number of behavioral changes including decreased sexual activity and use of contraceptives.
The CDC released this report on the final death data from 2012. Highlights include:
- The infant mortality rate was 5.98 per 1000 live births in 2012. This rate decreased 1.5% in 2012.
- The infant, neonatal, postneonatal mortality rate were not statistically significant from 2011 t0 2012.
- On page 1 and 2, you will find the top ten causes of infant death are for 2012. In the United States, 68.9% of all infant deaths were one of the top ten leading causes of infant deaths in 2012.
The CDC released this report on the final birth data from 2012. Highlights include:
- The birth rate for teenagers dropped 6% from 2011 to 2012, the lowest rate ever reported for the US.
- Births declined among women in their early 20s from 2011 to 2012 to a new record low.
- The US cesarean delivery rate remained unchanged at 32.8%.
- The preterm birth rate declined for a sixth straight year to 11.55%.
This report examines trends in out-of-hospital births in the United States during the periods 1990-2012. Highlights include:
- The percentage of out-of-hospital births increased from 1.26% of U.S. births in 2011 to 1.36% in 2012, continuing an increase that began in 2004.
- In 2012, out-of-hospital births comprised 2.05% of births to non-Hispanic white women, 0.49% to non-Hispanic black women, 0.46% to Hispanic women, 0.81% to American Indian women, and 0.54% to Asian or Pacific Islander women.
- In 2012, out-of-hospital births comprised 3%–6% of births in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Washington, and between 2% and 3% of births in Delaware, Indiana, Utah, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Rhode Island (0.33%), Mississippi (0.38%), and Alabama (0.39%) had the lowest percentages of out-of-hospital births.
- In 2012, the risk profile of out-of-hospital births was lower than for hospital births, with fewer births to teen mothers, and fewer preterm, low birthweight, and multiple births.
The CDC released this report on the final death data from 2011. Highlights include:
- The infant mortality rate was 6.07 per 1000 live births in 2011. This rate decreased 1.3% in 2011.
- The neonatal mortality rate remained the same in 2011.
- The postneonatal mortality rate decreased 4.3%.
- On page 1 and 2, you will find the top ten causes of infant death are for 2011.
Final US birth data for 2011 have been published! This report presents 2011 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics, including maternal age, race and ethnicity, marital status, method of delivery and birth attendant type, and infant characteristics such as gestation period, birth weight, and so forth. Here are some highlights from the report:
- The number of US births declined 1 percent in 2011 to 3,953,590, as did the general fertility rate (to 63.2 per 1,000 women ages 15 to 44)
- The teenage birth rate fell 8 percent to 31.3 per 1,000.
- Birth rates declined for women in their twenties, were unchanged for women 30-34 years and rose for women aged 35 to 44 years.
- The cesarean delivery rate remained stable at 32.8 percent
- The preterm birth rate declined for the fifth straight year to 11.73 percent
- The low birth weight rate declined slightly to 8.10 percent
This report provides extensive preliminary detail on deaths in 2011. It will eventually be superseded by a final version of the same report. Highlights include:
- On page 7, you will find basic facts about infant mortality (death from birth up to one year). Infant mortality showed a very slight decline from 2010 to 2011. Mortality among black infants was 2.2 times as high as among white infants (11.42 per thousand, compared to 5.11 per thousand).
- On page 8, you will find the top ten causes of infant mortality. It is interesting to think about which of these are and are not related directly to pregnancy and birth.
The revised birth certificate allows researchers to study even more trends in births in the United States. Check out this report using the revised certificate.
- Topics include prepregnancy obesity, receiving WIC, rates of smoking, deliveries covered by Medicaid, and the percentage of births resulting from infertility treatment.
The CDC released this report on Declines in State Teen Birth Rates by Race and Hispanic Origin: 2007-2011. Highlights include:
- "Teen birth rates fell at least 15% for all but two states during 2007–2011—the most recent period of sustained decline; rates fell 30% or more in seven states."
- "Declines in rates were steepest for Hispanic teenagers, averaging 34% for the United States, followed by declines of 24% for non-Hispanic black teenagers and 20% for non-Hispanic white teenagers."
This report by the CDC describes the recent decline in the U.S. infant mortality rate from 2005 through 2011. Highlights include:
- Changes in infant mortality rates over time are examined by age at death, maternal race and ethnicity, cause of death, and state.
- This data brief shows a decline in infant mortality rate by 12%, after plateauing in 2005.
- Since 2005, infant mortality rates for non-Hispanic Black women has declined 16%, 9% for Hispanic women, and declined most rapidly for some, but not all, Southern states.
- Despite these declines, states in the South still had among the highest rates in 2010. Infant mortality rates have also fallen for the five leading caused of infant death in 2011.
The CDC released this report on the Birth Rates for Teenagers in the United States in 2010. Highlights include:
- Though the teen birth rate in the United States remains one of the highest in the industrialized world, the birth rate for U.S. teenagers fell 9 percent from 2009 to 2010. When examining a consistent series of available rates, this resulting rate is the lowest in seven decades.
- The birth rate fell for teenagers in all age groups, in all racial and ethnic groups, and nearly all states. There remain disparities in birth rates across states and regions; however, some of the variation can be explained by the distribution of racial groups in each state.
- Without the fall in birth rate, an additional 3.4 million births to women 15-19 years of age would have occurred between 1992 and 2010.
- The decline is believed to have been influenced by pregnancy prevention messages directed to teenagers.
The National Center for Health Statistics released final data for the nearly 4 million births that occurred in the U.S. in 2010. Here are some highlights of this report:
- The number of U.S. births declined by 3% in 2010, with decreases occurring across nearly all ethnic and racial groups.
- While birth rates for women younger than 39 years declined from the previous year, including those of teenage girls (34.2 per 1,000), the rate for women 40-44 years continued to rise.
- Large disparities still exist between different states in terms of birth rates for teenage mothers. For example, in 2010 U.S. teenage birth rates ranged from 15.7 in New Hampshire to 55.0 in Mississippi.
- As in previous years, the vast majority of 2010 U.S. births occurred in hospital settings (98.8%) and were attended primarily by medical doctors (86.3%). Sixty-seven percent of out-of-hospital births occurred in a private residence (home), while 28% took place in a birthing center.
- For the first year since 1996, the cesarean section rate decreased reaching 32.8% (from 32.9% in 2009). Similarly to previous years, disparities exist between different racial and ethnic groups, with non-Hispanic black women being more likely to deliver by cesarean (35.5%) than non-Hispanic white (32.6%) and Hispanic women (31.8%). Great disparities also exist between different states, ranging from 22.6% in Alaska to 39.7% in Louisiana.
- While low birth weight remained stable at 8.15%, the preterm birth rate decreased to 11.99 percent, marking a decline for the fourth year in a row.
This report includes the most updated final data on deaths provided by the CDC, from 2010 data. Highlights include:
- It provides information about infant mortality by age (infant, neonatal, and postneonatal), sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause (130 selected causes).
- From 2009 to 2010, the infant mortality rate decreased 3.8 percent, the neonatal mortality rate decreased 3.1 percent, and the postneonatal mortality rate decreased 5.4 percent.
- In 2010, Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified (second leading cause of infant death), decreased 5. 6 percent from 2009.
- The infant mortality rate did not change significantly in 2010 from 2009 for white infants but decreased 8.0 percent for black infants.
The CDC released this report on the Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2009 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. This 2009 period linked data set contains information from the death certificate, which is linked to the birth certificate for each infant under the age of one who died in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or Guam. Highlights include:
- "The purpose of the linkage is to use the many additional variables available from the birth certificate to conduct more detailed analyses of infant mortality patterns."
- "This report presents infant mortality data by race and Hispanic origin of the mother, birthweight, period of gestation, sex of infant, plurality, maternal age, live-birth order, mother’s marital status, mother’s place of birth, age at death, and underlying cause of death."
- "The linked file is used to analyze and calculate infant mortality rates by race and ethnicity which are more accurately measured from the birth certificate."
This report covers the rising incidence of twins and higher multiples in the United States.
- Over the past 30 years, rates of twinning have gone up 76%, and are now at 33.3/1000.
- Every state saw increases in the rate of twins, although some dramatically more than others. The same is true across races and Hispanic origin, although the increase was less among Hispanic mothers. Similarly, rates increased in all age groups, but higher increases were seen in older mothers.
- The age distribution of mothers - more older women now have babies, and older women are more likely to have twins - accounts for about a third of the increase in twin births. Most of the rest is assumed to be due to treatment for infertility.
This report examines trends over time in home birth in the United States since 1990, using data from the National Vital Statistics System.
- The report provides information and graphs showing that while there has been an overall increase in home births between 1990 and 2009, most of the rise is due to non-Hispanic white women.
- Home birth rates among other groups declined overall since 1990, although in some subgroups the rates have gone up since the mid-2000s.
- The report also discusses:
- Geographic variation in home birth rates
- What kind of providers attend these births
- The risk profiles of women who deliver at home
A one-page reference sheet compiled by Childbirth Connection, this document provides comparisons of average charges by delivery facility type and delivery method for all U.S. births occurring between 2007 and 2009. This fact sheet was created using data made available through the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HCUPnet, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. The complete dataset is available online at: http://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/
The CDC released this report on the racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality in the United States based on the 2007 data. Highlights include:
- Its findings include a 2.4 times higher rate of infant mortality among non-Hispanic black women than among non-Hispanic white women, and a 1.6 times higher rate among American Indian and Alaska Native women than among non-Hispanic white women. Data for many more racial and ethnic groups is available in the report.
- The report also examines differences in the proximal causes of infant mortality between groups, finding that most excess mortality among non-Hispanic black infants is due largely to prematurity. However, the higher rates among American Indian and Alaska Native infants are due to mortality among term and near-term infants.
The CDC released this report on the final birth data from 2009. Highlights include:
- 4.13 million births occurred in the U.S. during 2009.
- Births decreased 3% from the previous year, with decreases among all racial and ethnic groups.
- Births also decreased among teenage mothers by 6%, reaching the lowest teenage birth rate (39 per 1,000) in seven years.
- While the preterm birth rate decreased in 2009, the rate of cesarean sections increased to 32.3%, as did the proportion of women with gestational diabetes or hypertension (41.2 per 1,000).
The CDC released this report on the final death data from 2008. Highlights include:
- It provides information about infant mortality by age (infant, neonatal, and postneonatal), sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause (130 selected causes).
- It also includes trend data for infant mortality by race and sex back to 1940, and state-by-state (and territory) data on infant mortality by race.
The CDC released this report on the Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2007 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. This 2007 period linked data set contains information from the death certificate, which is linked to the birth certificate for each infant under the age of one who died in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or Guam. Highlights include:
- In 2007, the infant mortality rate was 6.75 infant deaths per 1000 live births.
- The range in infant mortality was from 4.57 per 1000 live births for mothers of Central and South American origin to 13.31 for non-hispanic black mothers.
- A higher infant mortality was seen with male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight.
- The overall infant mortality rate was impacted by those infants with the lowest gestational ages and birthweights.
The CDC released this report in May 2010 on the final death data from 2007. Highlights include:
- This report contains the most recent US data on maternal mortality defined as those deaths occurring during or up to 42 days after pregnancy that were judged to be related to or aggravated by pregnancy or pregnancy management.
- A key population indicator of health, the US maternal mortality rate for this year was 12.7 deaths per 100,000 births.
- Like it does with infant mortality, the US population has dramatic racial disparities in maternal mortality.
- The report provides this data, as well as data about selected causes of maternal mortality and rates by Hispanic origin.
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