US Pregnancy & Teen Pregnancy Trends
Pregnancy and Maternal Care in the US Reports
Key Findings from this CDC report include:
- In 2016, 7.2% of women who gave birth smoked cigarettes during pregnancy.
- Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was highest for women aged 20–24 (10.7%), followed by women aged 15–19 (8.5%) and 25–29 (8.2%)
- Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native women had the highest prevalence of smoking during pregnancy (16.7%); non-Hispanic Asian women had the lowest (0.6%).
- The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was highest among women with a completed high school education (12.2%), and second-highest among women with less than a high school education (11.7%).
To find out more click here for the full report.
The CDC released this report on the Trends and Variations in Reproduction and Intrinsic Rates in the United States for 1990 to 2014. Highlights include:
- A decline in the rates of reproduction, the intrinsic rate of natural increase, and the intrinsic birth rate were observed when comparing 2014 to 1990.
- There was a steady decline in all rates from 1990 to 1997 and, then, there was an increase from 1997 to 2007. But, from 2007 to 2013, there was a decrease in all rates and the rates increased in 2013.
- When examining the race and Hispanic subgroups, a decline was observed for the total fertility and gross reproduction rates in all groups when comparing 2014 to 1990.
- From 2006 to 2014, a decline was observed with the net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and intrinsic brith rate for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
The CDC released this report on the Birth Expectations of U.S. Women Aged 15-44. Highlights include:
- It is estimated that 50% of U.S. Women aged 15-44 in 2013-2015 are expected to have a child in the future.
- In 2013-2015, it was estimated women to have on average 2.2 children in their lifetime, which has decreased since 2002.
- When comparing women who were never married, not cohabiting to those women who are currently married or cohabiting, a smaller percentage of those women expect to have a child within 2 years from the time of the interview. The percentages as follows: 5% currently never married, not cohabiting; 19% currently married; 16% currently cohabiting.
- Of mothers who have 2 or more children, 82% did not expect to have more children in the future.
For the full report, click here.
The CDC released this report on the pre-pregnancy body mass index by maternal characteristics and states from the 2014 Birth Certificate data. Highlights include:
- Of the mothers who gave birth in 2014, 3.8% were underweight and 45.9% were of normal BMI before becoming pregnant. In 2014, 50% of women delivering in 2014 were either overweight (2.5.6%) or obese (24.8%) before becoming pregnant.
- Mothers who were underweight before pregnancy decreased with age; however, mothers who were overweight before pregnancy increased with age.
- The percentage of first time mothers who were underweight before pregnancy was the highest. Furthermore, as parity increased, women were less likely to be underweight.
- The pre-pregnancy underweight and obesity percentages was higher than the national rate for fifteen states, which include Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
The CDC released this report on the short interpregnancy intervals in 2014. Highlights include:
- In 2014, 29% mothers who had a second or higher-order birth had a short inter pregnancy interval of less than 18 months.
- It was more common for mothers who were 35 and over to have short intervals between pregnancies compared to mothers who were under 20 years of age at their previous birth.
- It was most common for short intervals of less than 6 months and 6-11 months for non-Hispanic black mothers (7.1% and 11.7%, respectively) compared to non-Hispanic white mothers (4.1% and 11.2%) and Hispanic mothers (5.0% and 9.3%).
- There was correlation between short interpregnancy intervals of less than 6 months to education level, which was intervals of less than 6 months decreased, education level increased. For instance, 4.3% mothers no high school diploma to 1.8% mothers with a doctorate or professional degree show this correlation between an interval of less than 6 months to education level.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
This report by the Childbirth Connection summarizes the best available research about the impact of the healthcare liability system on maternity care and policy strategies for improved functioning of the liability system in maternity care. A broad investigation of maternity care liability issues has not been carried out since the Institute of Medicine issued a report in 1989.
- The report finds that there are more claims for newborn than maternal injury, though childbearing women are more likely to sustain negligent injury, while receiving care in US hospitals. However, the rate of filing claims by or on behalf of those who experienced negligent injury, mother or newborn, is low, about 2%. Payment for damages goes to less than 1% of those with negligent injury, and most money awarded goes toward administrative and legal costs rather than plaintiffs.
- Furthermore, the report did not find evidence of the severe adverse impact this liability system is believed to have on premium affordability or evidence of extensive avoidance defensive practice or assurance defensive practice. The report goes on to propose solutions for deficiencies in the current liability system with the aim to alleviate professional stressors, improve care of women and newborns, and achieve better value for those who pay for maternity services. The report proposes evaluations of these strategies as well as abandoning efforts to advance policy strategies that lack empirical support and/or have potential for narrow impact.
To access the full report, click here.
Key findings from this report from the CDC include:
- The pregnancy rate for U.S. women in 2009 was 102.1 per 1,000 women aged 15–44, the lowest level in 12 years; only the 1997 rate of 101.6 has been lower in the last 30 years.
- Rates for women under age 30 fell during 1990–2009, while rates for women aged 30 and over increased.
- Rates for teenagers reached historic lows in 2009, including rates for the three major race and Hispanic origin groups.
- Pregnancy rates have declined about 10% each for married and unmarried women since 1990.
- The birth rate for married women was 72% higher than the rate for unmarried women; the abortion rate for unmarried women was almost five times higher than the rate for married women.
To find out more click here for the final report.
Teen Pregnancy in the US Reports
- Teen birth rate declined in both large urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015. The largest decline was seen in the urban counties, while the smallest declines were seen the rural counties.
- The teen birth rate was lowest in the large urban counties and highest in the rural counties from 2007-2015.
- Between 2007 and 2015, the largest declines in teen birth rates for urban counties were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado. There were 17 states that experienced a decline of 50% or more.
- Between 2007 and 2015, the largest declines in teen birth rates for rural counties were in Colorado and Connecticut.
- The teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females in 2015.
- The United States Teen Birth Rate declined 8% in 2015 from 2014 to 22.3 birth per 1,000 females aged 15-19. This is a historic low for the U.S. Teen Birth Rates
- A record low was seen with the Birth Rates for teenagers aged 15-17 and 18-19 in 2015 to 9.9 and 40.7, respectively.
- Teen Birth Rates declined for Asian or Pacific Islander (6.9), Non-Hispanic White (16.0), American Indian or Alaska Native (25.7), Non-Hispanic Black (31.8), and Hispanic (34.9) female teenagers aged 15-19. In 2015, nearly all race and Hispanic-origin groups of females aged 15-19, 15-17, and 18-19 birth rates fell to record lows.
- Teen births have generally declined, after peaking in 1957.
- The rate fell 57% from 1991 and 2013.
- The largest declines from 1991-2012 were for non-Hispanic Black teenagers.
- In 2007-2012, the declines have been the steepest for Hispanic teenagers.
- The drop in teen birth rate translates to an estimated 4 million fewer births from 1990-2012.
- The rates reflect a number of behavioral changes including decreased sexual activity and use of contraceptives.
- “Teen birth rates fell at least 15% for all but two states during 2007–2011—the most recent period of sustained decline; rates fell 30% or more in seven states.”
- “Declines in rates were steepest for Hispanic teenagers, averaging 34% for the United States, followed by declines of 24% for non-Hispanic black teenagers and 20% for non-Hispanic white teenagers.”
- Though the teen birth rate in the United States remains one of the highest in the industrialized world, the birth rate for U.S. teenagers fell 9 percent from 2009 to 2010. When examining a consistent series of available rates, this resulting rate is the lowest in seven decades.
- The birth rate fell for teenagers in all age groups, in all racial and ethnic groups, and nearly all states. There remain disparities in birth rates across states and regions; however, some of the variation can be explained by the distribution of racial groups in each state.
- Without the fall in birth rate, an additional 3.4 million births to women 15-19 years of age would have occurred between 1992 and 2010.
- The decline is believed to have been influenced by pregnancy prevention messages directed to teenagers.