US Maternal & Infant Mortality

US Maternal & Infant Mortality

Infant Mortality Rates by State (2015) Slides

Download PowerPoint slides of Infant Mortality Rate by State, Infant Mortality Rate for Non-Hispanic Whites, and Percent Improvement in Infant Mortality Rate (2000-2015) here.

Infant and Maternal Mortality Reports

The CDC released this report on the Mortality in the United States for 2016. Highlights include:
  • In 2016, the infant mortality ratio was 587.0 infant deaths per 100,000 live births, which was not significantly different from 2015.
  • For 2016, the 10 leading causes of infant deaths remained the same as 2015, which accounted for 67.5% of all infant deaths.
  • For maternal complications, the infant mortality ratio decreased 7.3% from 38.3 infant deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015 to 35.5 in 2016.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
This report by the CDC explores maternal morbidity for vaginal and cesarean deliveries. Highlights include:
  • The rates of maternal morbidity were higher for cesarean than vaginal deliveries for all maternal age groups and women of all races and ethnicities.
  • Women who had vaginal deliveries with no previous cesarean delivery have lower rates for all maternal morbidities when compared to women who had cesarean deliveries.
  • Women who labored and had vaginal deliveries with previous cesarean delivery generally had lower rates for a majority of the morbidities. However, when a women has failed trials of labor is associated with higher morbidities compared to scheduled repeat cesarean deliveries.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
The CDC released this report on the Infant Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas in the United States for 2014. Highlights include:
  • From 2013-2015, the infant mortality rate by state ranged from 4.28 to 9.08 per 1,000 live births in Massachusetts and Mississippi, retrospectively.
  • The infant mortality rate by state for infants of non-Hispanic white women ranged from 2.52 to 7.04 in D.C. and Arkansas, retrospectively.
  • For infants of non-Hispanic black women, the infant mortality rate ranged from 8.27 to 14.28 in Massachusetts and Wisconsin, retrospectively.
  • For infants of Hispanic women, the infant mortality rate ranged from 3.94 to 7.28 in Iowa and Michigan, retrospectively.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
The CDC released this report on the final death data from 2015. Highlights include:
  • The infant mortality rate was 5.90 per 1000 live births, which was a slight increase from the record low infant mortality rate in 2014 of 5.82 per 1,000 live births.
  • The neonatal mortality rate was 3.93 per 1000 live births.
  • The postneonatal mortality rate was 1.96 per 1000 live births.
  • On page 1 and 2, you will find the top ten causes of infant death for 2015.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
The CDC released the report for the first time on the Cause of Fetal Death from the 2014 Fetal Death Report. It includes the causes of fetal death by selected characteristics including maternal age, Hispanic origin and race, fetal sex, period of gestation, and birthweight. Highlights include:
  • In 2014, the fetal mortality rate for the 37 areas examined in the report was 611.7 fetal deaths per 100,000 live births and fetal deaths. The fetal mortality rate from this report is 2% greater than the U.S. fetal mortality rate, which was 597.5 fetal deaths per 100,000 live births and fetal deaths.
  • There were five selected causes, which accounted for about 90% of all the fetal deaths. These five selected causes of fetal death were:
    • Congenital Malformations, deformations, and chromosomal  abnormalities
    • Maternal Complications
    • Maternal Conditions Unrelated to Pregnancy
    • Placenta, Cord, and Membrane Complications
    • Unspecified Cause
  • Birthweight and gestational age showed the most difference in the variables for the five selected causes of fetal death.
  • Even with the limited variations seen in the analysis with the selected causes of fetal death among maternal and fetal characteristics, the variations observed are consistent with previous relationships documented in the research literature.
For the full report, click here.
The CDC released this report on the Infant Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas in the United States for 2014. Highlights include:
  • As urbanization level increased in 2014, the infant mortality rate decreased from 6.55 deaths per 1,000 births in rural counties to 6.20 in small and medium urban counties and 5.44 in large urban counties.
  • For the neonatal mortality rates, this rate was higher in rural counties than in large urban counties. Additionally, as urbanization levels increased, the postneonatal mortality rates decreased.
  • Mortality rates were the lowest in large urban counties for infants born to mothers who were non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black.
  • As urbanization levels increased mortality rates decreased for infants of mothers aged 20-29, 30-39, and 40 and over.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
The CDC released this report on the Trends in Infant Mortality in the United States for 2005 to 2014. Highlights include:
  • In the United States, the infant mortality rates reached a new low for Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Asian or Pacific Islander Populations in 2014.
  • All infant mortality rates decreased from 2005 to 2014 in all race and Hispanic-origin subgroups except among American Indian or Alaska Native persons. Asian or Pacific Islander and non-Hispanic black women experienced the largest decline in infant mortality at 21% and 20%, respectively.
  • In all Hispanic subgroups, declined for all Hispanic subject groups from 2005 to 2007 and 2012 to 2014. Cuban and Puerto Rican women had the largest decline in infant mortality at 19% and 17%, respectively.
  • Sudden infant death syndrome, one of the top five leading causes of infant death, experienced 29% decline in the infant mortality rate from 2005 to 2014.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
The CDC released this report on the Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. This 2007 period linked data set contains information from the death certificate, which is linked to the birth certificate for each infant under the age of one who died in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or Guam. Highlights include:
  • In 2013, the infant mortality rate was 5.96 infant deaths per 1000 live births. This infant mortality rate was similar to the infant mortality rate in 2012, which was 5.98 per 1000 live births.
  • The infant mortality rate for infants who were born at 37-38 weeks of gestation (early term) had infant mortality rates that were 63% higher than infants who were born at 39-40 weeks of gestation (full-term).
  • The infant mortality rate has declined 13% since 2005, which was the most recent high in the infant mortality rate. The infant mortality rate in 2005 was 6.86 per 1000 infant deaths.
To find out more, click here for the full report.
This report by the CDC describes the recent decline in the U.S. infant mortality rate from 2005 through 2011. Highlights include:
  • Changes in infant mortality rates over time are examined by age at death, maternal race and ethnicity, cause of death, and state.
  • This data brief shows a decline in infant mortality rate by 12%, after plateauing in 2005.
  • Since 2005, infant mortality rates for non-Hispanic Black women has declined 16%, 9% for Hispanic women, and declined most rapidly for some, but not all, Southern states.
  • Despite these declines, states in the South still had among the highest rates in 2010. Infant mortality rates have also fallen for the five leading caused of infant death in 2011.
Check out the full report for more information.
The CDC released this report on the racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality in the United States based on the 2007 data. Highlights include:
  • Its findings include a 2.4 times higher rate of infant mortality among non-Hispanic black women than among non-Hispanic white women, and a 1.6 times higher rate among American Indian and Alaska Native women than among non-Hispanic white women. Data for many more racial and ethnic groups is available in the report.
  • The report also examines differences in the proximal causes of infant mortality between groups, finding that most excess mortality among non-Hispanic black infants is due largely to prematurity. However, the higher rates among American Indian and Alaska Native infants are due to mortality among term and near-term infants.
Check out the original report for more on this vitally important topic in maternal and infant health.

Talks from Dr. Gene Declercq

Gene Declercq spoke at the March of Moms in Washington, D.C. on May 16, 2018. Download the supporting data to his talk here.
Four Numbers to make you rethink what you thought you knew about maternal mortality
March for Moms (5/16/2018)
Gene Declercq presented this data to the NMQF Leadership Summit on Health Disparities in Washington, DC on April 17, 2018. Download the presentation here.
When Mommies Die: A Maternal Mortality Panel
2018 NMQF Leadership Summit on Health Disparities (4/17/2018)
Gene Declercq gave this presentation at the MMRIA User Meeting at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, GA on February 7, 2018. Download the presentation here.
State Perspectives on a National Problem: Maternal Mortality in 2018
MMRIA User Meeting, CDC (2/2018)
Gene Declercq presented this presentation at the USC Health Journalism Webinar titled "America’s High Maternal Mortality and What Can Be Done" on October 4, 2017. Download the presentation here. Full USC Health Journalism Webinar is available here.
Maternal Mortality as a Public Health Challenge
USC Health Journalism Webinar (10/2017)
Gene Declercq presented this presentation at the New England Regional Summit on Maternal Mortality in Boston, Massachusetts on September 28, 2017. Download the presentation here.
A National Perspective on a Regional Problem - Maternal Mortality in 2017
New England Regional Summit on Maternal Mortality: Boston, Massachusetts (9/2017)
Gene Declercq presented this presentation to the Massachusetts Perinatal Quality Collaborative in Waltham, Massachusetts on May 24, 2017. Download the presentation here.
U.S. Maternal Mortality: Why can't we figure out a national rate?
Massachusetts Perinatal Quality Collaborative: Waltham, Massachusetts (5/2017)
Gene Declercq presented this presentation to the Health Journalism 2017 in Orlando, Florida on April 21, 2017. Download the presentation here.
Birth, death and contemporary media coverage in the U.S.
Health Journalism 2017: Orlando, Florida (4/2017)